Food Stats: Mushrooms

Overview
  • Mushrooms are apart of the fungi family and reproduce via spores.

  • They can grow above or even underground.

  • Mushrooms can be cultivated or found in the wild. Make sure you consume edible mushrooms, as some wild can be poisonous.

  • There are a vast amount of mushroom types. Each coming from a different part of the world. Making mushrooms, a worldwide food.

  • Origin locations include Asia to European countries. But has been seen in ancient Greek and Chinese cultures.

  • Mushrooms are not only a delicious food they also have been used for medicinal properties.

  • Enjoy mushrooms raw, cooked, or dried!

  • Common mushrooms include while/brown field, portabello, crimini, porcini, chanterelle, shiitake, morel, and oyster mushrooms.



The Look
  • Mushrooms can be white, brownish, or yellowish in color.

  • They can be identified by their capped head tops and bottom stems. The heads of a mushroom can be of a more frilly or fan like.

  • When purchasing edible mushrooms look for mushrooms that are unblemished.

  • Mushrooms should not be slimy or wilted.

  • Depending on the type of mushroom will determine the exact look.

  • There are many "commercial" cultivated types of mushrooms like the white button or shiitake mushrooms, but there are also a handful of wild ones.

  • Be aware of wild mushrooms as many can be poisonous and can be misidentified as edible mushrooms.

  • Mushrooms can also be dried and packaged.

Nutrition
  • Contain a small amount of all the macronutrients

  • Mushrooms are one of the few foods that have naturally occurring vitamin D. Many foods have to be fortified with vitamin D, but not mushrooms!

  • Depending on the type of mushroom, each variety will have more or less different nutrients.

  • B vitamins such as niacin (B3), riboflavin (B2), and pantothenic acid (B5).

  • Minerals such as selenium, potassium, copper, potassium, magnesium, and zinc.

  • Phytochemicals

  • Some forms have high amounts of beta-glucans.

Benefits
  • Lower in calories, which can be good for weight loss or overall body composition.

  • Mushrooms are known to have anti-tumor and anti-cancer properties due to their nutritional makeup, immune support, and anti-inflammatory properties.

  • Some mushrooms have high antioxidant levels which are helpful for fighting disease.

  • Can be beneficial for aid in lowering cholesterol and liver protection.

Serving Size
  • These serving sizes are based on the common white/brown field mushroom

  • About 1 cup of mushrooms is 16 calories

  • About 1.8 grams of protein

  • About 3 grams of carbohydrates

  • About 0.1 grams of fat

  • About 1.2 grams of fiber



Use & Cooking
  • Mushrooms can be used and cooked in a variety of ways or eaten raw.

  • Common ways of cooking are sauteing, stir-frying, broiling, and stuffing.

  • Before cooking, make sure to clean your mushrooms with a damp cloth to remove any excessive dirt.

  • Do not keep them in water, mushrooms will absorb the water and turn slimy and waterlogged.

  • If using whole mushrooms, cut the last portion of the stem off and chop them to your desired style. Some mushrooms can be purchased pre sliced.

  • Once cleaned and sliced to the desired liking, consume them raw or cook with the desired cooking method.

  • Mushrooms pair well with a variety of different flavors, seasonings, and spices. Some common examples are olive oils, soy sauce, balsamic, garlic, onion, creams, and other dairy products.

  • They have a hearty flavor and texture which is perfect for those who follow plant-based diets.

  • Mushrooms make great toppings for pizzas, salads, and steaks. Again can be consumed raw or cooked.


Storage
  • Mushrooms are best kept in the refrigerator. They will hold up for about a couple of days before they start to go slimy.

  • If possible keep in a paper bag for optimal freshness, no plastic baggies, plastic will make them turn slimy quicker.


Recipes
  • Eat solo as a side dish or combine them into your favorite recipes

  • Mushroom risotto

  • Sauteed garlic mushrooms

  • Chicken marsala

  • Green bean casserole

  • Mushroom pasta sauce

  • Mushroom soup or cream of mushroom soup

  • Stuffed mushrooms

  • Stir-fry

  • Eat raw with your favorite dip



Volman, J. J., Helsper, J. P., Wei, S., Baars, J. J., van Griensven, L. J., Sonnenberg, A. S., Mensink, R. P., & Plat, J. (2010). Effects of mushroom-derived beta-glucan-rich polysaccharide extracts on nitric oxide production by bone marrow-derived macrophages and nuclear factor-kappaB transactivation in Caco-2 reporter cells: can effects be explained by structure?. Molecular nutrition & food research, 54(2), 268–276. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200900009

Valverde, M. E., Hernández-Pérez, T., & Paredes-López, O. (2015). Edible mushrooms: improving human health and promoting quality life. International journal of microbiology, 2015, 376387. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/376387


Jayachandran, M., Xiao, J., & Xu, B. (2017). A Critical Review on Health Promoting Benefits of Edible Mushrooms through Gut Microbiota. International journal of molecular sciences, 18(9), 1934. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18091934


Zhang, J. J., Li, Y., Zhou, T., Xu, D. P., Zhang, P., Li, S., & Li, H. B. (2016). Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Mushrooms Mainly from China. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 21(7), 938. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21070938

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